Vitamin B Group



B Vitamins are a group of 8 water soluble vitamins that are essential for certain bodily functions, such as metabolism, energy production, and nervous system function.

The 8 types of B Vitamins are:

  • Vitamin B-1 (thiamine): Required for the production of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and therefore involved in providing energy to the brain from the food you eat. This vitamin helps to stabilize moods and aids with memory. The body uses thiamine to make adenosine triphosphate which transports energy within cells. There are no risk factors associated with thiamine consumption. Food sources include: pork, poultry, peas, nuts, soybeans, dried beans, lentils, legumes, whole grains, bread, rice, and yeast. Thiamine deficiency can be increased by certain practices such as: drinking excessive amounts of coffee and tea, chewing tea leaves or betel leaves, and eating raw fish and shellfish. Thiamine deficiency is rare and can cause health problems such as Beriberi (a condition that affects breathing, eye movements, heart function, and alertness), and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (where Wernicke’s disease affects the nervous system causing visual impairments, lack of muscle coordination, and mental decline, and Korsakoff syndrome permanently impairs memory functions in the brain. A main cause of such deficiencies is alcoholism.
  • Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin): Aids with cellular energy production and is important for protein metabolism. It also affects the metabolism of iron in positive ways, and produces important antioxidants which help to prevent free radical cells. It is also needed to change Vitamin B-6 and folate into forms the body can use. Food sources include: almonds, brewer’s yeast, wholegrains, wheat germ, mushrooms, soy beans, wild rice, dairy, eggs, broccoli, spinach, brussel sprouts, beet greens, asparagus, turkey, beef liver, salmon, and lamb. Riboflavin is destroyed by light so foods containing the vitamin should be stored away. It can also be lost in water when foods are boiled or soaked. It is best absorbed when taken in between meals. Riboflavin is considered safe, even at high doses. Possible side effects include: itching, numbness, burning or prickling sensations, bright yellow urine, and sensitivity to light. Taking only certain vitamin B supplements at one time can upset the balance of the other important B vitamins. This vitamin can interact with other medications so it is best to seek medical advice before taking any supplements.
  • Vitamin B-3 (niacin): Helps the function of the digestive system, skin and nerves, and is important for converting food to energy. It aids with the body’s cardiovascular system and metabolism, and is important for regulating blood cholesterol levels. Niacin also helps the body produce various sex and stress-related hormones in the adrenal glands and other parts of the body. It also helps with circulation and has been known to reduce inflammation. Alcoholism is the main cause of vitamin B-3 deficiency. This deficiency is characterized by indigestion, fatigue, canker sores, vomiting, poor circulation, depression, a burning sensation in the mouth, and a swollen, bright red tongue. Severe deficiency can cause a condition called Pellagra which is characterized by cracked, scaly skin, diarrhoea, and dementia. Food sources include: beets, brewer’s yeast, beef liver, beef kidney, fish, salmon, tuna, sunflower seeds, mushrooms, bread and cereals, and peanuts. High doses of niacin can be toxic, and you should not take more than the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Side effects include: nausea, vomiting, sun reactions, dizziness, headaches, allergic reactions, heart problems, diabetes, worsened gallbladder or liver disease symptoms, low blood pressure, worsened gout symptoms, and stomach or intestinal ulcers. This vitamin may also interact with other medications.
  • Vitamin B-5 (pantothenic acid): Helps to convert food into glucose, aids to manufacture red-blood cells, produce stress hormones, and aids in maintaining a healthy digestive tract. It also helps the body use other B complex vitamins such as Vitamin B-2 (riboflavin). Deficiency of this vitamin is rare, but people who are more susceptible are alcoholics, women on oral contraceptives, people with severe malnutrition, and people with the inability to absorb vitamins properly due to the interaction of certain drugs or intestinal disorders. Symptoms of Vitamin B-5 deficiency include: fatigue, depression, irritability, insomnia, stomach pains, vomiting, burning feet, muscle cramps, and upper respiratory infections. Food sources include: beef liver, avocado, sunflower seeds, duck, portabella mushrooms, eggs, salmon, lentils, sundried tomatoes, yoghurt, broccoli, cabbage, sweet potatoes, and veal. Vitamin B-5 is generally safe to take at the recommended dosage, and moderately higher, but excessively high doses may cause diarrhoea, and increased risk of bleeding. Pregnant women should not exceed the daily intake unless advised to do so by a doctor. This vitamin can possibly interact with other medications. It is best to take Vitamin B-5 supplements after eating.
  • Vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride): Along with actively converting carbohydrates into fuel, this vitamin helps the body to produce neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that carry signs from one nerve cell to another. It also aids in brain development and function, and helps with the production of serotonin, norepinephrine, and melatonin which influence mood and regulate the body clock. The body requires Vitamin B-6 to absorb Vitamin B-12 and therefore make red blood cells and immune system cells. Deficiencies are rare, but symptoms include: muscle weakness, nervousness, irritability, depression, loss of concentration, and short term memory loss. People who are susceptible to deficiency are young children, elderly people, individuals with renal disease and insufficiency, people with autoimmune disorders, and people on certain medications. Food sources include: cereals, chicken, turkey, tuna, salmon, shrimp, beef liver, milk, cheese, beans, lentils, spinach, carrots, brown rice, bran, sunflower seeds, wheat germ, bananas, and whole grains. High doses do not usually cause adverse effects and this vitamin is considered relatively safe. Extremely high doses of Vitamin B-6 can cause neurologic disorders such as loss of feeling in the legs, and imbalance, although a complete recovery is expected after discontinuation. Possible side effects include: skin irritation, sensitivity to sunlight, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite. Supplements can interact with other medications so consult with doctor prior to use.
  • Vitamin B-7 (biotin): This vitamin converts carbohydrates into fuel, supports the adrenal system, maintains a healthy nervous system, and is necessary for certain metabolic processes. Without biotin, many enzymes would not work properly, resulting in many complications such as: skin diseases, and diseases of the nervous system and intestinal tract. This vitamin can help lower and regulate high blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes, and has been known to decrease insulin resistance. Deficiencies of biotin are quite rare, and are often present in people using long term anti-seizure medications, prolonged oral antibiotic use, intestinal malabsorption, and intravenous feeding. Prolonged consumption of raw egg whites is also a common cause of deficiency. Symptoms of Vitamin B-6 deficiency include: seborrheic dermatitis, dry skin, brittle hair, hair loss, fatigue, intestinal tract issues, muscle pains, and problems with the nervous system. Food sources include: organ meats, barley, brewer’s yeast, cereal, egg yolks, corn, milk, soy, cauliflower, carrots, bananas, chicken and wheat bran. No toxicity has been reported with biotin intake, although it can interact with certain medications.
  • Vitamin B-9 (folate/folic acid): Folic acid is crucial for proper brain function. It plays an important role in mental and emotional health, and aids in the production of DNA and RNA, and is highly important during times of infancy, pregnancy, and adolescence. Used in conjunction with Vitamin B-12, folate aids in the production of red blood cells. It is common to be deficient in Vitamin B-9, with alcoholism, irritable bowel disease, and celiac disease being common causes. Symptoms of deficiency include: poor/stunted growth, tongue inflammation, gingivitis, appetite loss, diarrhoea, shortness of breath, irritability, forgetfulness, and problems concentrating. Food sources include: spinach, dark leafy greens, asparagus, turnips, beets, mustard greens, brussel sprouts, lima beans, soy beans, beef liver, brewer’s yeast, root vegetables, wholegrains, wheat germ, bulgur wheat, kidney beans, white beans, mung beans, salmon, orange juice, avocado, cereals and milk. Side effects are rare and folate is considered quite safe. Extremely high doses can cause reactions and side effects like: stomach problems, sleep problems, skin reactions, general confusion, loss of appetite, nausea, and seizures. High levels of folate can also hide a Vitamin B-12 deficiency. This vitamin can interact with other medications.
  • Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin/cyanocobalamin): Cobalamin is used by the body to convert carbohydrates into fuel, and is crucial for a healthy brain, nervous system, and immune system. It is required for metabolism in every cell of the body, regulates and synthesized DNA, and is required for the formation of red blood cells. The body doesn’t make this vitamin itself, and can mostly only be found in animal products such as eggs, meat, shellfish, and dairy, and as a result, the majority of people who are deficient are vegetarians, vegans, are over 50, have celiac disease, or have other digestion problems. More conditions that may cause/increase deficiency include: Atrophic gastritis (thinning of the stomach lining), pernicious anaemia (causing difficulty absorbing vitamin B-12), intestinal disorders such as Crohn’s disease, and disorders of the immune system such as lupus or Grave’s disease. Excessive drinking and long-term use of acid-reducing drugs may also play a part in the cause of Cobalamin deficiency. This vitamin can be taken in a supplement form, or as injections, and can also be found in fortified grains and cereals, and certain fortified non-dairy milks and meat substitutes. The human body produces millions of red blood cells every minute, but without Vitamin B-12, cells cannot multiply properly. The blood count then drops, resulting in anaemia, which is the most common symptom of Vitamin B-12 deficiency. Anaemia symptoms include: fatigue, shortness of breath, palpitations, irregular heartbeat, cold extremities, dizziness and confusion, insomnia, headaches, loss of appetite, weight loss, pale/yellow skin, increased bruising, and menstrual problems. Other symptoms of Cobalamin deficiency include: weakened immune system, increased infections and illnesses, neurological symptoms such as numbness in the hands and feet, difficulty concentrating, and poor co-ordination. Symptoms of deficiency in infants and young children include: movement disorders, developmental delays, and megaloblastic anaemia (where the bone marrow produces unusually large and structurally abnormal red blood cells). Infants born to vegan or vegetarian mothers, who are exclusively breastfed, will likely develop deficiency within months of birth, due to a lack of the vitamin present in the breastmilk. If the deficiency is not noticed early and treated, it can lead to severe and permanent neurological damage. As Vitamin B-12 does not remain in the system, there is low potential for toxicity; however, it does have the potential to interact with certain medications.



Vitamin B-1:

  • Improves energy production
  • Improves cardiovascular health, along with muscle and nerve health: This is due to the production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which relays messages to the muscles and nerves. Deficiency can cause irregular heartbeat, and congestive heart failure
  • Prevents cataracts and improves overall eye health: When used in conjunction with fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6, this vitamin aids with the prevention of cataracts
  • Improves brain function and memory: This vitamin improves concentration and memory, helping to ward off diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia
  • Halts the progression of Multiple Sclerosis and Bell’s Palsy
  • Alleviates stress
  • Strengthens and improves overall nerve function: This occurs due to the production of Myelin sheaths which are the protective covering of the nerves
  • Anti-aging properties: Vitamin B-1 acts as a powerful antioxidant, which helps protect the body from wrinkles, age spots, and other age related conditions
  • Improves digestion: Vitamin B-1 aids with the secretion of hydrochloric acid, which is essential for the breakdown and digestion of food
  • Improves appetite
  • Aids with red blood cell production
  • Boosts immunity: Vitamin B-1 strengthens and maintains the muscles along the walls of the digestive tract. This aids in the proper absorption of nutrients from the digested foods, and results in a higher immunity, leaving you less likely to become sick
  • Treats alcoholism: Alcoholism can cause deficiencies in Vitamin B-1, so supplements can reverse some of the effects of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome which is a result of Vitamin B-1 deficiency. It can also decrease symptoms of alcohol withdrawal
  • Improves and stabilizes mood


Vitamin B-2:

  • Cancer prevention: Riboflavin, being an antioxidant, plays a huge role in preventing oxidative damage, often caused by oxygen forming free radicals
  • Aids with healthy blood cells: Therefore this vitamin helps to treat anaemia
  • Boosts energy levels: Riboflavin is used to metabolise food into energy. It is required to break down proteins into amino acids, fats, and carbohydrates in the form of glucose. This helps to convert the food into useable energy, and maintain a healthy metabolism
  • Decreases the risk of thyroid disease: Riboflavin is required to regulate thyroid activity and adrenal function
  • Regulates growth and reproduction: This vitamin is essential for ensuring proper growth and development of the reproductive organs, and the growth of tissues such as skin, mucous membranes, connective tissues, the nervous system, and the immune system
  • Prevents acne: This is due to the improved mucous secretion of the skin which prevents the skin pustules common with acne
  • Improves and protects the nervous system: It is used to treat conditions of the nervous system such as: numbness, Alzheimer’s, Multiple Sclerosis, epilepsy, and anxiety
  • Slows the progression of HIV and AIDS
  • Boosts mineral absorption: Riboflavin is known to improve the absorption of minerals such as iron, folic acid, and Vitamins B-1, B-3, and B-6
  • Repairs damaged tissues and heals wounds faster
  • Improves digestive tract health: This occurs due to the production and protection of the mucous membranes in the digestive system
  • Promotes healthy eyes: It does this by preventing conditions such as cataracts, keratoconus, and glaucoma
  • Increases immunity: Riboflavin strengthens the antibody reserves, and reinforces the immune system against infections
  • Prevents migraine headaches
  • Promotes healthy hair, nails, and skin


Vitamin B-3:

  • Improves cholesterol levels: Vitamin B-3 is known to boost the levels of good HDL cholesterols and lower triglycerides, while lowering the levels of bad LDL cholesterol.
  • Reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease: Niacin does this not only by lowering cholesterol levels, but by also reducing the hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), reducing inflammation, and producing histamine which is capable of dilating blood vessels and improving circulation
  • Helps treat diabetes: Vitamin B-3 plays an important role in balancing blood sugar levels. It also decreases the levels of the bad LDL cholesterol which is usually high in people suffering from diabetes
  • Improves and maintains skin health: Niacin or niacinamide is often used to treat moderate to severe cases of acne, including inflammatory acne vulgaris (severe painful cases of acne). It can be applied topically (niacinamide) or ingested in food or as a supplement. This vitamin is effective due to its strong anti-inflammatory properties. It can also be used to treat other skin conditions such as bullous pemphigoid and granuloma annulare which are conditions involving the painful blistering of the skin, often causing infection
  • Improves brain function: Niacin helps to protect against brain disorders that result in cognitive decline such as Alzheimer’s. It also decreases the risk of loss of brain function due to age
  • Protects the brain after a stroke: Niacin not only significantly reduces the chance of a stroke, but can also aid with the production of new blood vessels in the brain
  • Aids with arthritis and joint mobility: It has been known to be effective enough to replace pain killers when used to treat joint issues, largely due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It also improves the health of the deep blood vessels surrounding the joints
  • Used to treat schizophrenia and hallucinations
  • Treats migraine headaches
  • Aids with sensitivity to sunlight: Many people who are deficient in Vitamin B-3 are highly sensitive to sunlight
  • Aids with insomnia: Niacin activates the benzodiazepine receptors in the brain, which affect sleep
  • Improves digestion
  • Prevents erectile dysfunction
  • Improves circulation: Niacin is associated with the production of histamine, which is a chemical compound that dilates blood vessels, therefore improving the circulation to all areas of the body
  • Improves liver health: Niacin does this by aiding in the removal of harmful chemicals from the liver
  • Is used to treat pellagra: People suffering from weak muscles, digestive problems, skin irritations, or pellagra are often deficient in levels of Vitamin B-3
  • Boosts energy by converting food into useable energy


Vitamin B-5:

  • Reduces stress, anxiety, and depression by regulating stress hormones: The adrenal glands require pantothenic acid to produce the hormone cortisone which is particularly effective at reducing stress
  • Controls blood pressure
  • Improves digestion
  • Boosts energy  due to the metabolic conversion of food to energy
  • Builds stamina: Pantothenic acid reduces body fatigue and weariness, and regulates the metabolism therefore increasing stamina, making it highly beneficial for athletes and active people
  • Improves skin and hair health: This vitamin delays signs of premature aging such as wrinkles and age spots, and also plays an important role in hair pigmentation and the prevention of loss of hair colour due to age. It also helps to prevent hair loss and has been found to have a moisturizing effect on skin
  • Has been found effective in treating asthmatic bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, and seasonal allergic rhinitis
  • Used to treat eye pain and dry eyes
  • Strengthens the immune system
  • Aids with liver health: Pantothenic acid helps the liver to metabolise toxic substances
  • Is a powerful anti-inflammatory agent: The adrenal glands require Pantothenic acid to produce cortisol, an important anti-inflammatory produced by the body
  • Boosts immunity
  • Improves the health of the nervous system: Vitamin B-5 is essential for producing the energy required to fire the neurotransmitters in the brain. These neurotransmitters carry chemical signals throughout the entire body and keep all bodily systems working properly
  • Aids with healthy blood cells: This vitamin is essential for the health and production of red blood cells. It also increases the production of haemoglobin. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein found in the red blood cells of vertebrates and in the tissues of some invertebrates. Sufficient levels of haemoglobin will prevent conditions such as anaemia and iron deficiency
  • Improves heart health: Pantothenic acid helps to improve and maintain heart health due to its ability to regulate cholesterol and control blood pressure
  • May lower cholesterol: Pantothenic acid reduces triglycerides, or fats, in the blood, and has been known to lower bad LDL cholesterol and increase good HDL cholesterol
  • Promotes wound healing
  • Aids with the absorption of other vitamins, particularly Vitamin B-2
  • Treats arthritis: This vitamin is so effective at treating conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and joint pain due to its effectiveness as an anti-inflammatory agent


Vitamin B-6:

  • Pyridoxine prevents heart disease by controlling and lowering the levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine is an amino acid associated with heart disease
  • Alleviates morning sickness
  • Improves the overall health of blood vessels: Vitamin B-6 regulates the levels of homocysteine, which, in high levels, can cause damage to the blood vessel linings
  • Improves brain function: This vitamin lowers the risk of certain conditions linked to the deterioration of the brain such as Alzheimer’s, and dementia, by lowering and regulating the levels of homocysteine, which can cause damage to the neurons of the central nervous system as well as damage to blood vessels
  • Treats anaemia: Vitamin B-6 is essential for the creation of haemoglobin in the blood
  • Protects eye health: This vitamin has been shown to slow the onset of certain eye diseases and complications such as age-related macular degeneration and loss of vision
  • Helps treat rheumatoid arthritis: Vitamin B-6 has been used to treat this condition due to its pain-relieving, and anti-inflammatory qualities
  • Treats high blood pressure: Vitamin B6 increases blood flow, and lowers build ups in the arteries, helping to lower high blood pressure as a result
  • Decreases depression symptoms and improves mood: This is due to the fact that Vitamin B-6 increases the production of serotonin and norepinephrine, chemicals that affect mood. Low levels of serotonin have been linked to depression
  • Improves memory and concentration: This is largely due to the increased production of serotonin caused by Vitamin B-6, which is known to regulate mood and energy, and improve concentration. It has been used to treat conditions such as ADHD, and other learning and behavioural disorders
  • Relieves PMS symptoms: This vitamin has been known to treat the symptoms of PMS due the positive effect it has on the neurotransmitters in the brain which are responsible for pain management. It also improves blood flow and regulates hormones
  • Can help to treat asthma
  • Improves sleep and treats insomnia: This is due to the fact that pyridoxine assists with the body’s production of melatonin, which is the hormone that helps people fall asleep
  • Improves immune system health
  • Improves skin health and treats conditions such as eczema, acne, hair loss, dandruff, dry skin, and psoriasis
  • Prevents kidney stones
  • Prevents carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Efficiently treats inflammatory conditions
  • Treats IBS and IBD
  • Balances blood sugar levels


Vitamin B-7:

  • Supports healthy metabolism and boosts energy: This is due to Vitamin B-7 being required for the metabolic conversion of food to useable fuel/energy which supports a healthy metabolism
  • Treats diabetes: Vitamin B-7 regulates blood sugar levels by making the process of insulin easier, and aids with glucose intolerance. Insulin is beneficial for diabetes sufferers as it helps to balance blood sugar levels
  • Improves hair, skin, and nail health: Biotin has been used to treat weak hair and nails, and helps to protect the skin from acne, rashes, fungal infections, and dryness. This vitamin is more effective when ingested rather than applied topically
  • Aids with tissue growth, repair, and maintenance: B vitamins, especially vitamin B-7 help to reduce inflammation, and work to repair damage to any tissues or muscles
  • Improves the functioning of nervous system tissues, along with the growth of bone marrow
  • Aids with weight loss: due to the increased metabolism caused by B vitamins
  • Improves digestion
  • Improves heart health: Vitamin B-7 does this by reducing the levels of ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol in the body, while increasing the levels of ‘good’ HDL cholesterol
  • Supports thyroid and adrenal function: Deficiency in vitamin B-7 can cause thyroid and adrenal complications which can result in symptoms of fatigue, weight fluctuations, insomnia, and affected moods
  • Improves and protects brain function: Due to Biotins active role in nerve signalling and neurotransmitter activity, Vitamin B-7 and the rest of the  vitamin complex aid in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline and impairment, such as Alzheimer’s and dementia. Due to its role in synthesizing hormones, vitamin B-7 is also effective at boosting energy, improving moods, and increasing concentration


Vitamin B-9:

  • Prevents heart disorders: Folate improves heart health by lowering the levels of homocysteine in the blood. It also controls and regulates the deposition of cholesterol to the heart
  • Reduces risk of stroke: Apart from causing heart attacks, homocysteine can also be responsible for strokes. Therefore, due to the reducing effect Vitamin B-9 has on homocysteine, this vitamin effectively aids in reducing strokes
  • Reduces the risk of cancer: This vitamin aids to prevent the occurrence of cancer in the human body in various forms, such as: cervical, colon, breast, pancreatic, stomach, and lung cancer. This is due to the fact that folate works to keep DNA healthy and prevents mutations that can lead to cancer. Folate plays an important role in DNA synthesis, repair, and stability. Coenzymes of folate regulate DNA methylation which is essential in controlling gene expression and cell differentiation. Abnormalities in this process have been linked to the development of mutations. However, studies have indicated that an excessive intake of folic acid may accelerate tumour growth in cancer patients
  • Reduces the risk of birth defects: Deficiencies in this vitamin have been known to cause neural tube defects, Spinal Bifida, autism, and developmental impairment in newborns and children. It may also help to lessen the risk of miscarriage. Folate can also lengthen the average gestational age (length of pregnancy), resulting in increased birth weight, and a lowered risk of premature labour
  • Improves digestion
  • Aids with the building, repair, and maintenance of muscles
  • Improves haemoglobin formation: Haemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells, which is essential for transferring oxygen to the cells and organ systems of the body. Improvement in this transfer also results in boosted energy levels, and increased metabolism efficiency
  • Improves the health of certain cells: Folate is an essential element in the formation of red blood cells. This vitamin also significantly aid in the growth and repair of skin cells and the cells of the small intestine. Folate is also responsible for replacing old cells with new ones
  • Treats anaemia: This is due to the improvement of the health and formation of red blood cells caused by folate
  • Beneficial for the treatment of mental and emotional disorders: Folate is involved in the synthesis of serotonin and dopamine both of which help to regulate mood
  • Reduces the risk of age-related hearing loss and age-related macular degeneration
  • Improves sperm viability: Men with low folate levels have been found to often have sperm with incorrect chromosomal structure. Studies suggest folate supplements can improve sperm motility and chances of pregnancy, therefore increasing fertility
  • Improves brain function: This vitamin lowers the risk of certain conditions linked to the deterioration of the brain such as Alzheimer’s, and dementia, by lowering and regulating the levels of homocysteine, which can cause damage to the neurons of the central nervous system as well as damage to blood vessels
  • Repairs liver damage: Folate has been known to counteract the damaging effects of alcohol and substances to the liver by helping to maintain methionine and glutathione levels, both of which are essential for liver detoxification
  • Improves kidney health: Folic acid, in conjunction with enalapril is highly effective at slowing kidney function decline and has been known to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, and increase the survival rates of patients with end-stage kidney disease
  • Improves bone strength: Folate supplements have been found to increase bone mineral density and decreases the risk of bone fractures. Folate can act as a cofactor for nitric oxide synthase (in place of tetrahydrobiopterin) which helps to preserve bone density by stimulating bone formation and preventing bone loss
  • Improves metabolism and therefore increases the production of energy due to the conversion of food to useable energy


Vitamin B-12:

  • Improves and maintains energy levels: This is due to the increased metabolic conversion of food to energy
  • Prevents memory loss and helps prevent neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and dementia: Cobalamin plays an essential role in nerve health and neurotransmitter signalling, therefore helping to improve cognitive function. Cobalamin is required for the metabolism of fatty acids involved in the formation of the myelin sheath around nerve cells. This sheath insulates the nerve cells, and increases the speed of electrical impulses between the cells, and is essential for nerve health and neurological function
  • Aids with the function of the nervous system and boosts mood: Vitamin B-12, in conjunction with folate, is required in the production of a compound called SAM (S-adenosyl methionine). The SAM compound is crucial for neurological function, and stress and mood regulation
  • Improves and maintains heart health: Cobalamin helps to reduce elevated homocysteine levels (a major risk factor for heart disease and strokes), and can also help to lower high cholesterol and high blood pressure levels. Vitamin B-12 also helps to reduce the build-up of plaque in the arteries – conditions known as atherosclerotic diseases
  • Maintains healthy skin and hair: Vitamin B-12 plays a major role in cell reproduction which results in the benefits of: reduced redness, dryness, inflammation, and acne of skin. It is used to treat eczema, and psoriasis, and reduces hair and nail breakage
  • Aids with digestion: This is due to the active role Vitamin B-12 plays in the maintenance of a healthy metabolism, and the breakdown of foods in the stomach. Cobalamin helps to foster health bacteria in the gut environment, and aids with the elimination of bacteria in the digestive tract, preventing digestive disorders such as IBS or candida
  • Aids with a healthy pregnancy: Cobalamin is required to create DNA, and therefore is a key nutrient for promoting growth and development. In conjunction with folate, cobalamin aids to lower the risk of birth defects, such as neural tube defects
  • Prevents certain cancers: Especially when in conjunction with folate. Cobalamin is helpful in preventing and treating certain cancers such as: prostate, lung, breast, and colon cancer
  • Aids in the production of red blood cells and also prevents anaemia: Vitamin B-12 is required to produce healthy red blood cells. It also helps to prevent a specific type of anaemia called megaloblastic anaemia, which occurs when the body produces red blood cells that are larger than normal, along with a low red blood count. It also helps to prevent pernicious anaemia, which is a condition that prevents the body from generating healthy new red blood cells
  • Prevents strokes: Cobalamin prevents excess cholesterol, and maintains a healthy blood pressure
  • Regenerates bone marrow and the lining of respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts
  • Promotes healthy bones
  • Boosts the immune system



Recommended dietary allowance for Vitamin B-1:

Infants 0-6 months 0.2mg
Infants 7-12 months 0.3mg
Children 1-3 years 0.5mg
Children 4-8 years 0.6mg
Girls 9-13 years 0.9mg
Boys 9-13 years 0.9mg
Girls 14-18 years 1.0mg
Boys 14 years or older 1.2mg
Women over 18 years 1.1mg
Pregnant women 1.4mg
Breastfeeding women 1.5mg



Recommended dietary allowance for Vitamin B-2:

Infants 0-3 months 0.3mg
Infants 7-12 months 0.4mg
Children 1-3 years 0.5mg
Children 4-8 years 0.6mg
Children 9-13 years 0.9mg
Girls 14-18 years 1.0mg
Boys 14-18 years 1.3mg
Women 19 years and older 1.1mg
Men 19 years and older 1.3mg
Pregnant women 1.4mg
Breastfeeding women 1.6mg


Recommended dietary allowance for Vitamin B-3:

Infants 0-6 months 2.0mg
Infants 7-12 months 4.0mg
Children 1-3 years 6.0mg
Children 4-8 years 8.0mg
Children 9-13 years 12.0mg
Girls 14-18 years 14.0mg
Boys 14-18 years 16.0mg
Women 19 years and older 14.0mg
Men 19 years and older 16.0mg
Pregnant women 18.0mg
Breastfeeding women 17.0mg


Recommended dietary intake for Vitamin B-5:

Infants 0-6 months 1.7mg
Infants 7-12 months 1.8mg
Children 1-3 years 2.0mg
Children 4-8 years 3.0mg
Children 9-13 years 4.0mg
Teens 14-18 years 5.0mg
Adults 19 years and over 5.0mg
Pregnant women 6.0mg
Breastfeeding women 7.0mg


Recommended daily allowance for Vitamin B-6:

Infants 0-6 months 0.1mg
Infants 7-12 months 0.3mg
Children 1-3 years 0.5mg
Children 4-8 years 0.6mg
Children 9-13 years 1.0mg
Girls 14-18 years 1.2mg
Boys 14-18 years 1.3mg
Men and women 19-50 years 1.3mg
Men over 50 years 1.7mg
Women over 50 years 1.5mg
Pregnant women 1.9mg
Breastfeeding women 2.0mg


Adequate intake levels for Vitamin B-7:

(There is no recommended daily allowance)

Infants 0-6 months 5.0mcg
Infants 7-12 months 6.0mcg
Children 1-3 years 8.0mcg
Children 4-8 years 12.0mcg
Children 9-13 years 20.0mcg
Adolescents 14-18 years 25.0mcg
Adults 19 years and older 30.0mcg
Pregnant women 30.0mcg
Breastfeeding women 35.0mcg


Adequate intake levels for Vitamin B-9:

Infants 0-6 months 65.0mcg
Infants 7-12 months 80.0mcg
Children 1-3 years 150.0mcg
Children 4-8 years 200.0mcg
Children 9-13 years 300.0mcg
Teens 14-18 years 400.0mcg
Men and women over 18 400.0mcg
Pregnant women 600.0mcg
Breastfeeding women 500.0mcg


Adequate intake levels for Vitamin B-12:

Infants 0-6 months 0.4mcg
Infants 7-12 months 0.5mcg
Children 1-3 years 0.9mcg
Children 4-8 years 1.2mcg
Children 9-13 years 1.8mcg
Over 14 years 2.4mcg
Pregnant women 2.6mcg
Breastfeeding women 2.8mcg